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The loadshape built-in data type is used to represent a finite-state machine that takes on the value of a complex power when synchronized. A loadshape is associated with a schedule, and requires a number of parameters to define its behavior. There are five types of loadshapes, and each has a difference set of parameters that define it:

Analog 
Analog load shapes directly compute the power from the values in the schedule.
Pulsed 
Pulsed load shapes emit one or more pulses at random such that the specified energy is accumulated over the period of the load shape.
Modulated 
Modulated load shapes emit a sequence of modulated pulses of either constant period and duty-cycle (amplitude) or constant power and off-time (pulse width) or constant power and on-time (frequency).
Queued 
Queued load shapes emit random pulses whenever a queue accrued from the load shape reaches an on threshold and continues emitting pulses until the queue reaches an off threshold.
Scheduled 
Scheduled load shapes emit values based on a schedule in a way that incorporates diversity.

Analog

Figure 1 - Example of an analog loadshape

Analog loadshapes directly compute the power from the values in the schedule. An analog loadshape is defined using the following terms:

 class example {
   loadshape myshape;
 }
 object fixed-energy {
   myshape "type: analog; schedule: schedule-name; energy: value kWh";
 }
 object scaled-power {
   myshape "type: analog; schedule: schedule-name; power: value kW";
 }
 object unscaled {
   myshape "type: analog; schedule: schedule-name";
 }


The schedule parameter specifies which schedule is to be used. When the energy is given, the schedule is used to create a shape that consumes the specified energy in each schedule block. The power required is based on the fraction of energy allocated to each time interval by the schedule.

When the power scale is given, the scheduled value is multiplied by the power value.

When neither energy nor power is given, the schedule value is used directly as the power.

A standard deviation on the energy or power value can be given, in which case each instance of the loadshape that is generated will use an error drawn from the triangle distribution from -3 to +3, such that

valuevalue + stdev * Triangle[-3,3]

The stdev term can be given units and it will be scaled accordingly, e.g.,

 object stdev-power {
   myshape "type: analog; schedule: schedule-name; power: value kW; stdev error W";
 }

Pulsed

Figure 2 - Example of a pulsed loadshape

Pulsed loadshapes emit 1 or more pulses at random times such that the total energy specified is accumulated over the period of the loadshape. A pulsed loadshape is defined using the following terms:

 class example {
   loadshape myshape;
 }
 object sample {
   myshape "type: pulsed; schedule: schedule-name; energy: value kWh; count: value; duration: value s";
 }

or

 class example {
   loadshape myshape;
 }
 object sample {
   myshape "type: pulsed; schedule: schedule-name; energy: value kWh; count: value; power: value kW";
 }

The first form defines a series of pulses with constant duration, and the second form defines a series of pulses with constant power. When the duration is constant, the power will vary in response to changes in voltage such that the amount of energy used during a loadshape block is as specified. When the power is constant, the duration will vary in response to changes in voltage such that the amount of energy used is constant. Only one of the two may be specified, and at least one must be specified.

The count parameter determines how many pulses will be generated during a loadshape block. The value is optional and the default value is 1.0.

A standard deviation on the duration or power value (as specified by the unit) can be given, in which case each instance of the loadshape that is generated will use an error drawn from the triangle distribution from -3 to +3, such that

valuevalue + stdev * Triangle[-3,3]

The stdev term can be given units and it will be scaled accordingly, e.g.,

 object stdev-power {
   myshape "type: analog; schedule: schedule-name; power: value kW; stdev error W";
 }

or

 object stdev-power {
   myshape "type: analog; schedule: schedule-name; power: value kW; stdev error s";
 }


Modulated

Figure 2a - Example of a amplitude modulated loadshapes
Figure 2b - Example of a pulse-width modulated loadshapes
Figure 2c - Example of a frequency modulated loadshapes

Modulated loadshapes emit a continuous sequence of modulated pulses with either constant period and duty-cycle (amplitude), constant power and off-time (pulsewidth), or constant power and on-time (frequency). A modulated loadshape is defined using the following terms:

 class example {
   loadshape myshape;
 }
 object sample {
   myshape "type: modulated; modulation: modulation; schedule: schedule-name; energy: value kWh; count: value; period: value s";
 }

or

 class example {
   loadshape myshape;
 }
 object sample {
   myshape  "type: modulated; modulation: modulation; schedule: schedule-name; energy: value kWh; count: value; power: value kW";
 }

A standard deviation on the duration or power value can be given, in which case each instance of the loadshape that is generated will use an error drawn from the triangle distribution from -3 to +3, such that

valuevalue + stdev * Triangle[-3,3]

The stdev term can be given units and it will be scaled accordingly, e.g.,

 object stdev-power {
   myshape "type: analog; schedule: schedule-name; power: value kW; stdev error W";
 }

Queued

Figure 2 - Example of a queued loadshape

Queued loadshapes emit random pulses whenever a queue accrued from the loadshape reaches an on threshold and continues emitting pulses until the queue reaches an off threshold. A queued loadshape is defined using the following terms:

 class example {
   loadshape myshape;
 }
 object sample {
   myshape  "type: pulsed; schedule: schedule-name; energy: value kWh; count: value; duration: value s; q_on: value; q_off: value";
 }

or

 class example {
   loadshape myshape;
 }
 object sample {
   myshape  "type: pulsed; schedule: schedule-name; energy: value kWh; count: value; power: value kW; q_on: value; q_off: value";
 }

The values of q_on and q_off are in the same units as the integrals of the normalized loadshape and q_on must be greater than q_off.

A standard deviation on the duration or power value can be given, in which case each instance of the loadshape that is generated will use an error drawn from the triangle distribution from -3 to +3, such that

valuevalue + stdev * Triangle[-3,3]

The stdev term can be given units and it will be scaled accordingly, e.g.,

 object stdev-power {
   myshape "type: analog; schedule: schedule-name; power: value kW; stdev error W";
 }

Scheduled

Scheduled loadshapes control the diversity of a population of objects and affect the aggregate value (heavy black).

Schedule-based loadshapes are provided to enable a simpler and more intuitive way of defining aggregate loadshapes that incorporates diversity. For example:

 class example {
   loadshape myshape;
 }
 object sample {
   myshape  "type: scheduled; weekdays: MTWRF; on-time: 6<8~1<10; off-time: 15<16~1<18; on-ramp: 0.5<1~0.5<1.5; off-ramp: 1<2~1<3; low: 1<2~1<3high: 10<15~2<20 kW;
 }

will generate a randomized ramped 8-hour pulse at roughly 10 kW Monday through Friday. Weekdays are defined as

  • U=sunday,
  • M=monday,
  • T=tuesday,
  • W=wednesday,
  • R=thursday,
  • F=friday,
  • S=saturday, and
  • H=holiday.

Values are provided in the format

 min<mean~stdev<max

If the min or the max are omitted, then 3 σ is used. If the stdev is omitted, then 0 is used (meaning the value is invariant).

The syntax for varying values (mean~stdev) allows the same definition to be used for multiple objects, e.g.,

 #define SCHEDULE_1="weekdays: MTWRF; on-time: 8~1; off-time: 16~1; on-ramp: 1~0.5; off-ramp: 2~1;"
 object sample {
   myshape  "type: scheduled; SCHEDULE_1; power: 15~2 kW;
 }

See also